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Cirad

Citrus

Ollitrault P., Navarro L.. 2012. In : Badenes Marisa Luisa (ed.), Byrne David H. (ed.). Fruit breeding. New York : Springer [Etats-Unis], p. 623-662. (Handbook of plant breeding, 8).

Citrus is the most extensively produced tree fruit crop in the world. There are two clearly differentiated markets: the fresh fruit and the processed juice market. Citrus species are essentially diploids (2n = 2x = 18) and were domesticated in Southeast Asia several thousand years ago and then spread throughout the world. Most of the cultivated citrus species are part of the Citrus genus containing, depending on the taxonomist, between 16 and 156 species. The relative complexity of these classifications results from the conjunction of a broad morphological diversity, total sexual interspecific compatibility within the genus and apomixis. There are four basic taxa on the basis of morphological descriptors and molecular data (C. maxima (Burm.) Merr., the pummelos; C. medica L., the citrons, C. reticulata Blanco, the andarins, and C. micrantha Wester). The other cultivated species (C. aurantium L., the sour orange; C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck, the sweet orange; C. paradisi Macf, the grapefruit; C. limon (L.) Burm. f., the lemon, and C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, the lime) appeared by recombination among the basic taxa. Most of the citrus scion cultivars result from the selection of spontaneous bud mutations identified in production orchards. Today several projects of ploidy manipulation are developed in different countries to select seedless triploid mandarins. Fruit quality (size, color, easy-peeling), seedlessness, and the extension of the harvest season are the main selection objectives for fresh market cultivars. The majority of the rootstocks used for propagation are original species or ancient natural hybrids. However, intergeneric hybrids (Citrus × Poncirus) such as citranges, citrumelos, and citrandarins have an increasing importance. The first rootstock breeding objective is adaptation to soil conditions and soil pathogens. The most widespread needs would be tolerance to CTV. Biotechnology is strongly integrated into breeding and propagation schemes. Shoot tip grafting is widely used for sanitation of the mother plants in certification propagation schemes. Somatic hybridization is an effective tool used for scion and rootstock breeding. Functional genomics studies ESTs, microarray platforms, and a full genome sequence are available. Efficient and reliable transformation systems for several economically important citrus species exist. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : génie génétique; hybridation intergénérique; polyploïdie; hybridation somatique; greffon; porte greffe; amélioration des plantes; citrus limon; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis; citrus aurantiifolia; citrus reticulata; citrus medica; citrus maxima; poncirus trifoliata; citrus; citrus clementina; citrus macroptera

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Multiplication végétative des plantes; Systèmes et modes de culture

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