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Are biofuels a factor of sustainable development in a food insecurity context in Africa? : Case study of Burkina Faso

Dabat M.H., Blin J., Hanff E.. 2012. In : Olla Phillip. Global sustainable development and renewable energy systems. Hershey : Information Science Reference, p. 152-171. (Premier reference source).

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-1625-7.ch008

Bearing in mind the strong link between energy and development, and given the country's heavy reliance on imported fossil fuels, this chapter discusses the opportunity for substituting fossil fuels with biofuels in a Sahelian country, Burkina Faso. Biofuel opportunities are discussed taking into account technical, agronomic, and land potentials in this country. Diversification of energy resources with biofuels would reduce the growth of fuel imports in the short term, improve overall public finances, provide a chance to develop agriculture, and provide benefits for the locals. However, if they are to generate sustainable socio-economic development, biofuel projects need to be mindful of food security and economic incentives, and should be part of national agricultural strategies. The chapter shows that a number of conditions must be met to ensure the advantages of biofuels outweigh the disadvantages: prioritising domestic use over exports; supporting the emergence of decentralised systems; localising dedicated crops in order to avoid competition with food crops; regulating the edible oil market; removing technical obstacles to production and processing; and prioritising projects implying family-farming rather than agri-business.

Mots-clés : biocarburant; politique énergétique; politique de développement; développement durable; huile végétale; Éthanol; méthanol; Évaluation de l'impact; impact sur l'environnement; environnement socioéconomique; sécurité alimentaire; analyse coût avantage; analyse économique; exploitation agricole familiale; burkina faso

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