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Genetic structure and phylogeny of the 'true citrus fruit trees' group (Citrinae, Rutaceae)

Garcia-Lor A., Curk F., Snoussi Trifa H., Morillon R., Ancillo G., Luro F., Navarro L., Ollitrault P.. 2015. In : Navarro Luis (ed.), Sabater-Muñoz Beatriz (ed.), Moreno Pedro (ed.), Peña Leandro (ed.). Proceedings of the XIIth International Citrus Congress: International Society of Citriculture. Leuven : ISHS, p. 85-95. (Acta Horticulturae, 1065). International Citrus Congress: Citrus and Health. 12, 2012-11-18/2012-11-23, Valence (Espagne).

Despite considerable differences in morphology, the general representing 'true citrus fruit trees' are sexually compatible, but their phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Most of the important commercial species of Citrus are believed to be of interspecific origin. By studying SNP and indel polymorphisms of 27 nuclear genes on 32 genotypes of Citrus and relatives of Citrus, the phylogenetic relationship between 'true citrus fruit trees' was clarified. Additionally, four mitochondrial (mtDNA) and five chloroplastic (cpDNA) SSRs markers were analysed for the citrus species to specify the maternal phylogeny of Citrus secondary species. A total of 16238 kb of DNA was sequenced for each genotype, and 1156 SNPs and 58 indels were identified. Nuclear phylogenetic analysis revealed that C. reticulata, Poncirus, and Fortunella form a clade that is clearly differentiated from the clade that includes three other basic taxa of cultivated citrus (C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). Clymenia is included in a third strong clade with Eremocitrus and Microcitrus. The nuclear phylogeny of Citrus and its sexually compatible relatives was consistent with the geographic origins of these genera. The origin of Citrus secondary species was analysed both at nuclear and cytoplasmic level and the conclusions mostly agree with previous hypotheses. The SNPs and indels identified at the nuclear level from a relatively large discovery panel will be useful for systematic characterisation of citrus germplasm, both at intra- and inter-specific level.

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