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Variations in genomic DNA methylation during the long-term in vitro proliferation of oil palm embryogenic suspension cultures

Rival A., Ilbert P., Labeyrie A., Torres E., Doulbeau S., Personne A., Dussert S., Beulé T., Durand-Gasselin T., Tregear J., Jaligot E.. 2013. Plant Cell Reports, 32 (3) : p. 359-368.

DOI: 10.1007/s00299-012-1369-y

In the aim of exploring the relationship between epigenetic stability and the long-term in vitro proliferation of plant tissues, we have studied changes in genomic DNA methylation levels in embryogenic suspensions of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Five embryogenic callus lines were obtained from selected hybrid seeds and then proliferated as suspension cultures. Each clonal line obtained from a single genotype was subdivided into three independent subclonal lines. Once established, cultures proliferated for 12 months and genomic DNA was sampled at 4 months intervals for the estimation of global DNA methylation rates through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitation of deoxynucleosides. Our results show that in vitro proliferation induces DNA hypermethylation in a time-dependent fashion. Moreover, this trend is statistically significant in several clonal lines and shared between subclonal lines originating from the same genotype. Interestingly, the only clonal line undergoing loss of genomic methylation in the course of proliferation has been found unable to generate somatic embryos. We discuss the possible implications of genome-wide DNA methylation changes in proliferating cells with a view to the maintenance of genomic and epigenomic stability.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; variation somaclonale; stabilité génétique; embryogénèse somatique; micropropagation; génie génétique; méthylation; adn; bénin; Épigénétique

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