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Polinizadores, polinización y producción potencial de cacao en sistemas agroforestales de Bocas del Toro, Panamá

Cordoba C., Cerda R., Deheuvels O., Hidalgo E., DeClerck F.. 2013. AgroForestería en las Américas (49) : p. 26-32.

We analyzed the relationship of pollinating insects Ceratopogonidae (Atrichopogon, Dasyhelea, Forcipomyia) with shade canopy and land cover characteristics of cocoa agroforestry systems (AFS) for cocoa and cocoa production potential through the action of flowers pollinated naturally by pollinators. Pollinators were found in 60% of cocoa-AFS evaluated, with populations of 1800-19500 individuals ha-1. Insects in the genus Forcipomyia were the most important because of their greater abundance and positive relationship with the number of flowers pollinated/fertilized. Statistically significant and positive relationships were found between the abundance of pollinators with the density of cacao trees and the leaf litter cover and remains of decomposing fruit on the ground. The relationship was negative with the abundance of timber, musaceous, fruit and palm trees, and with the presence of stones, grass and bare soil. The negative relationship with canopy plants appears to be more influenced by excessive shade than by the abundance of plants per se. In cocoa-AFS with demonstrated presence pollinators, the percentage of flowers pollinated/fertilized was twice that of systems where they were not found (4% and 2% respectively). This confirms the importance of pollinators. Nevertheless, with only 2-4% of the flowers pollinated/fertilized thanks to pollinators, apparently cocoa production potential will not be good enough. The agroforestry management of the cocoa-AFS of Bocas del Toro must be improved to increase flowering and populations of insect pollinators. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : agroforesterie; pollinisation; ceratopogonidae; pollinisateur; theobroma cacao; panama

Thématique : Physiologie végétale : reproduction; Systèmes et modes de culture; Production forestière

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