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Dynamic of H5N1 virus in Cambodia and emergence of a novel endemic sub-clade

Sorn S., Sok T., Ly S., Rith S., Nguyen Tung, Viari A., Gavotte L., Holl D., Seng H., Asgari N., Richner B., Laurent D., Chea N., Duong V., Toyoda T., Yasudai C.Y., Kitsutani P., Zhoui P., Bing S., Deubel V., Donis R., Frutos R., Buchy P.. 2013. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 15 : p. 87-94. International Giardia and Cryptosporidium Conference. 4, 2012-01-30/2012-02-03, Wellington (Afrique du Sud).

DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2012.05.013

In Cambodia, the first detection of HPAI H5N1 virus in birds occurred in January 2004 and since then there have been 33 outbreaks in poultry while 21 human cases were reported. The origin and dynamics of these epizootics in Cambodia remain unclear. In this work we used a range of bioinformatics methods to analyze the Cambodian virus sequences together with those from neighboring countries. Six HA lineages belonging to clades 1 and 1.1 were identified since 2004. Lineage 1 shares an ancestor with viruses from Thailand and disappeared after 2005, to be replaced by lineage 2 originating from Vietnam and then by lineage 3. The highly adapted lineage 4 was seen only in Cambodia. Lineage 5 is circulating both in Vietnam and Cambodia since 2008 and was probably introduced in Cambodia through unregistered transboundary poultry trade. Lineage 6 is endemic to Cambodia since 2010 and could be classified as a new clade according to WHO/OIE/FAO criteria for H5N1 virus nomenclature. We propose to name it clade 1.1A. There is a direct filiation of lineages 2 to 6 with a temporal evolution and geographic differentiation for lineages 4 and 6. By the end of 2011, two lineages, i.e. lineages 5 and 6, with different transmission paths cocirculate in Cambodia. The presence of lineage 6 only in Cambodia suggests the existence of a transmission specific to this country whereas the presence of lineage 5 in both Cambodia and Vietnam indicates a distinct way of circulation of infected poultry.

Mots-clés : influenzavirus aviaire; surveillance épidémiologique; descendance; polymorphisme génétique; séquence nucléotidique; bioinformatique; lignée; viet nam; cambodge; thaïlande; Émergence

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