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Peste des petits ruminants

Diallo A.. 2012. In : Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals : (mammals, birds and bees). Paris : OIE, p. 1032-1043.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute contagious disease caused by a Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. it affects mainly sheep and goats and occasionally wild small ruminants. Based on the fact that PPR has been reported on a few occasions in camels, cattle and buffaloes, those animal species are considered to be susceptible although their potential role in the circulation of PPR virus (PPRV) has not been formally established. PPR occurs in Africa except Southern Africa, in the Arabian Peninsula, throughout most of the Near East and Middle East, and in Central and South-East Asia. The clinical disease resembles rinderpest in cattle. it is usually acute and characterised by pyrexia, serous ocular and nasal discharges, erosive lesions on different mucous membranes particularly in the mouth, diarrhoea and pneumonia. At necropsy, erosions may be noted in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. The lungs may show interstitial bronchopneumonia and often secondary bacterial pneumonia. PPR can also occur in subclinical form. The disease must be differentiated from rinderpest, bluetongue, foot and mouth disease and other exanthemous conditions. Identification of the agent: The collection of specimens at the correct time is important to achieve diagnosis by virus isolation and they should be obtained in the acute phase of the disease when clinical signs are still apparent. The specimens from live animals can be swabs of conjunctival discharges, nasal secretions, buccal and rectal mucosae, and anticoagulant-treated blood. Rapid diagnosis is done by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EL/SA), counter immunoe/ectrophoresis and agar gel immunodiffusion. Polymerase chain reaction may also be used. Serological tests: The serological tests that are routinely used are the virus neutralisation and the competitive EL/SA. Requirements for vaccines: In the past, control of PPR was ensured through vaccination with the rinderpest tissue culture vaccine because of the existence of a strong antigenic relationship between PPR and rinderpest viruses. The use of this heterologous vaccine has been abandoned in favour of the live attenuated PPR virus vaccine, which is now widely commercially available. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : bétail; ovin; caprin; vaccin; test biologique; diagnostic; identification; technique immunologique; morbillivirus; peste des petits ruminants

Thématique : Maladies des animaux

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