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High genetic diversity of in situ and ex situ populations of Madagascan coffee species: further implications for the management of coffee genetic resources

Andrianasolo D.N., Davis A.P., Razafinarivo N.J., Hamon S., Rakotomalala J.J., Sabatier S.A., Hamon P.. 2013. Tree Genetics and Genomes, 9 (5) : p. 1295-1312.

DOI: 10.1007/s11295-013-0638-4

The genetic diversity of endemic Madagascan Coffea species has not received any considerable attention, despite the high extinction threat facing most of the species on the island. In order to address this shortfall, we assessed and compared the genetic diversity and allelic richness of ex situ and in situ populations for four selected species, and 18 ex situ populations maintained at the Kianjavato Coffee Research Station. We also investigated the possibility of in situ and ex situ hybridization events for Madagascan coffee, both within and between species. For these purposes, we used 18 nuclear microsatellite markers, on a total of 37 Coffea populations (4 in situ and 33 ex situ) representing a total of 398 genotypes (96 in situ and 302 ex situ) for 23 species. Our study showed (1) strong differentiation be- tween Madagascan Coffea species; (2) good differentiation between all the populations studied, including those from the same locality (even when the area of the locality was restricted); (3) good evidence for both in situ and ex situ hybridization, although in situ hybridization appeared to be limited; (4) much higher genetic diversity within in situ collections compared to ex situ collections; and (5) that, despite limitations, the Kianjavato Coffee Research Station collection is an extremely valuable resource of Madagascan coffee germplasm. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ germplasm conservation are discussed.

Mots-clés : coffea; conservation des ressources; variation génétique; microsatellite; marqueur génétique; conservation du matériel génétique; hybridation interspécifique; madagascar; coffea millotii; coffea perrieri; coffea kianjavatensis; coffea resinosa

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