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New avian paramyxoviruses type I strains identified in Africa provide new outcomes for phylogeny reconstruction and genotype classification

Servan de Almeida R., Hammoumi S., Gil P., Briand F.X., Molia S., Gaidet N., Cappelle J., Chevalier V., Balança G., Traoré A., Grillet C., Fridolin Maminiaina O., Guendouz S., Dakouo M., Samake K., Bezeid O.E.M., Diarra A., Chaka H., Goutard F., Thompson P., Martinez D., Jestin V., Albina E.. 2013. PloS One, 8 (10) : 16 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076413

Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most lethal diseases of poultry worldwide. It is caused by an avian paramyxovirus 1 that has high genomic diversity. In the framework of an international surveillance program launched in 2007, several thousand samples from domestic and wild birds in Africa were collected and analyzed. ND viruses (NDV) were detected and isolated in apparently healthy fowls and wild birds. However, two thirds of the isolates collected in this study were classified as virulent strains of NDV based on the molecular analysis of the fusion protein and experimental in vivo challenges with two representative isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F and HN genes showed that isolates recovered from poultry in Mali and Ethiopia form new groups, herein proposed as genotypes XIV and sub-genotype VIf with reference to the new nomenclature described by Diel's group. In Madagascar, the circulation of NDV strains of genotype XI, originally reported elsewhere, is also confirmed. Full genome sequencing of five African isolates was generated and an extensive phylogeny reconstruction was carried out based on the nucleotide sequences. The evolutionary distances between groups and the specific amino acid signatures of each cluster allowed us to refine the genotype nomenclature.

Mots-clés : virus maladie de newcastle; paramyxoviridae; surveillance épidémiologique; phylogénie; génotype; séquence nucléotidique; classification; Évolution; provenance; animal sauvage; volaille; oiseau; enquête pathologique; Éthiopie; mali; madagascar; afrique; séquencage

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