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Mango-based orchards in Senegal: diversity of design and management patterns

Grechi I., Sane C.A.B., Diame L., De Bon H., Benneveau A., Michels T., Huguenin V., Malézieux E., Diarra K., Rey J.Y.. 2013. Fruits, 68 (6) : p. 447-466.

DOI: 10.1051/fruits/2013094

Introduction. Mango-based orchards in Senegal occur in a large diversity of cropping systems, but few typologies of these systems exist and none are associated with their comprehensive and quantitative analysis. In this study we defined and characterized the typology of these systems based on a quantitative assessment of their planting design, management, vegetative state, hedgerow structure and infestation by a major pest of mango, the Bactrocera invadens fly. Materials and methods. Multivariate analysis and clustering methods were applied to data from 64 mango-based orchards and their surrounding hedgerows sampled in the Dakar and Thiès regions, in Senegal. Results and discussion. Four types of cropping systems were identified according to orchard design and management patterns: (1) 'No-input mango diversified orchards', (2) 'Low-input mango orchards', (3) 'Mediuminput citrus-predominant orchards' and (4) 'Medium-input large mango or citrus-predominant orchards'. Orchard characteristics varied among these patterns. For instance, vegetation was dens e and homogeneous in system 1, and the mortality rate of trees was high in system 2 but low in system 3. Orchards of systems 3 and 4 were mostly associated with hedgerows with, respectively, boundary-marking and defensive species. Lastly, the number of B. invadens flies was high in orchards of system 4, whereas it was low in those of system 2. Conclusion. The diversity of mango-based cropping systems in Senegal is now well described and quantified. This characterization is a preliminary step that is essential for further studies aiming to improve these systems.

Mots-clés : mangifera indica; verger; classification; pratique culturale; système de culture; modèle; méthode statistique; sénégal; bactrocera invandens

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