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Adaptability of small ruminant farming facing global change. A north south analysis in Mediterranea

Lasseur J., Alary V., Aboul-Naga A., Bonnet P., Tourrand J.F.. 2013. In : EAAP. Book of Abstracts of the 64th annual meeting of the European federation of animal science, Nantes, France, 26-30 August, 2013. Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 154-154. EAAP Annual Conference. 64, 2013-08-26/2013-08-30, Nantes (France).

Global change (e.g. urbanization and demographic pressure in coastal zone, accentuation of extreme climatic events) induce new organizations of livestock farming systems. These reorganizations within space are part of family and landscape trajectories. They are responses to external constraints as well as family changes and socio political, economic and environmental opportunities (land use planning, change in public policies). We analyze adaptive capacities of small ruminants farming systems in Provence region (France) and Matruh region (Egypt). This research is based on two methodological frameworks: (1) analysis of socio ecological systems and their resilience (mainly in France); (2) analysis of families livelihoods and their vulnerabilities (mainly egypt). Maintaining of livestock farming activities is observed in case studies in Provence region. Adaptations mainly rely on increasing of economic dimension of farms and increasing of flock motilities. These allow farmers to take advantage of new resources (forages for the flock, market for the produces) relatively to contrasted and emerging abilities of coastal zones and hinterland areas of the region. These changes reinforce the development of farms but in a counter part they weaken interactions between livestock farming dynamics and local development surrounding farmland, compromising their co-evolution. In matruh region, adaptive capacities to last droughts have been operated through alternatives outside farming sector (mainly migration). But livestock farming remains a basis to secure family livelihoods and for functioning of Bedouin society on mid-terms. From a methological point this study highlights the necessity of cross scaled and long terms analysis to study adaptability. On these very contrasted situations, livestock farming remains at the core of adaptation even if the mechanisms involved differ.

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