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West Nile virus surveillance, Brazil, 2008-2010

Ometto T., Durigon E.L., De Araujo J., Aprelon R., Moura de Aguiar D., Cavalcante C.T., Melo R.M., Levi J.E., Mendes de Azevedo Júnio S., Petry M.V., Neto I.S., Serafini P., Villalobos E., Cunha E.M.S., Lara M.D.C.C.S.H., Ferreira Dales Nava A., Schiavo Nardi M., Hurtado R., Rodrigues R.B., Sherer A.L., Sherer J.D.F.M., Geraldi M.P., Moraes de Seixas M.M., Peterka C., De Souza Bandeira D., Pradel J., Vachiery N., Labruna M.B., Aranha de Camargo L.M., Lanciotti R., Lefrançois T.. 2013. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 107 (11) : p. 723-730.

DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trt081

Background West Nile virus (WNV) is an emergent pathogen that is widely distributed in North and Central America. The recent introduction in South America has focused attention on the spread of WNV across Southern American countries. The transmission network involves mosquitoes, birds, horses and humans. Methods The serological evaluation of sera from 678 equids and 478 birds was performed using a WNV-specific blocking ELISA, and only the positive results were confirmed by plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNTs). Molecular analysis was performed on sera from 992 healthy equids and on 63 macerates of brains from equids that died of encephalitis and had previously tested negative for other pathogens. We also tested swabs from 928 birds. The samples analysed were collected in different biomes of Brazil. Results We identified WNV antibodies by ELISA in thirteen equids and five birds, and PRNT90 confirmed WNV positivity in four equid samples collected in 2009 in an area between the Amazon and the Pantanal. None of the ELISA positive bird samples were confirmed by PRNT90, and all samples tested by RT-PCR were negative. Conclusion WNV circulation is confirmed by this large scale survey even in the absence of detection of clinical cases.

Mots-clés : fièvre; flavivirus; surveillance épidémiologique; sérologie; biologie moléculaire; equidae; oiseau; migration animale; enquête pathologique; technique immunologique; sérum sanguin; test elisa; brésil; fièvre du nil occidental

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