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Experience from fifteen years of Malagasy lychee export campaigns

Jahiel M., Andreas C., Penot E.. 2014. Fruits, 69 (1) : p. 1-18.

DOI: 10.1051/fruits/2013098

Lychee on the European markets. With approximately 2.8 Mt of annual global production, lychee constitutes a minor fruit in terms of production. The world production is mainly located in the northern hemisphere (95%). However, most of the quantity exported to the EU comes from the southern hemisphere. In this context, with its 100,000 t of annual production, Madagascar is ranked fourth in the producing world and first in the southern hemisphere producing countries. This rank is due to the fact that supplies in the EU are seasonal and mainly concentrated during the end of the year holiday season. This market can only be supplied in quantity by the Malagasy lychee because of its earlier date of harvest in the Indian Ocean. The lychee industry in Madagascar. Lychee cultivation in Madagascar dates from the early twentieth century. It is primarily grown in wet tropical lowlands of the island with some production in areas with a subtropical climate with dry and cool winters. The stand is not structured into orchards. Therefore, the volumes currently exported are based on a stand established by a multitude of small producers. The characteristics of Malagasy lychee export and the consequences of the production context on export are analyzed. Changes in European legislation on lychee importation. The regulatory changes since 1987 and the commercial developments since 1994 are reviewed by analyzing the resulting effects on the Malagasy lychee exports. Learning experience from fifteen years of Malagasy lychee export campaigns. Data on Malagasy lychee export campaigns from 1996 to 2012 and the history of the changes in volumes exported allow a close analysis of the factors affecting the Malagasy lychee industry. Success factors of the Malagasy lychee exports. These factors are related to securing market position and to the components of a marketing campaign (supply date to the European market, exported volumes and competition from produce from other countries). Conclusions. Lychees from Madagascar, although marketed for a very brief period, currently occupy the first rank on the European markets and have managed, through the development of transport logistics using very large-capacity cargoes, to eliminate all competition. However, this sector is mainly structured downstream and its production, which comprises a network of 30,000 small producers, has been neglected. This lack of intervention (boosting of production, improving crop management, etc.) upstream of the chain does not support sustaining the industry in the medium term.

Mots-clés : litchi (fruits); exportation; donnée de production; donnée statistique; transport; contrôle de qualité; réglementation des marchés; commercialisation; qualité; madagascar; pays de l'union européenne; filière

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