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Seasonal dynamics of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal

Diarra M., Fall M., Fall A.G., Diop A., Seck M.T., Garros C., Balenghien T., Allene X., Rakotoarivony I., Lancelot R., Mall I., Bakhoum M.T., Dosum A.M., Ndao M., Bouyer J., Guis H.. 2014. Parasites and Vectors, 7 (147) : 11 p..

Background The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. The vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in Senegal. This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak. Methods Two Onderstepoort light traps were used at each site for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year to measure the apparent abundance of the Culicoides midges. Results In total, 224,665 specimens belonging to at least 24 different species (distributed among 11 groups of species) of the Culicoides genus were captured in 354 individual collections. Culicoides oxystoma, Culicoides kingi, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides enderleini and Culicoides nivosus were the most abundant and most frequent species at the collection sites. Peaks of abundance coincide with the rainy season in September and October. Conclusions In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. This study depicted a site-dependent spatial variability in the dynamics of the populations of the five major species in relation to the eco-climatic conditions at each site. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : culicoides oxystoma; piège lumineux; orbivirus; peste équine africaine; fièvre catarrhale du mouton; virus peste équine africaine; virus bluetongue; equidae; Épidémiologie; facteur climatique; variation saisonnière; transmission des maladies; distribution spatiale; dynamique des populations; vecteur de maladie; culicoides; sénégal; culicoides imicola

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux; Météorologie et climatologie

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