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Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in Reunion Island: Evidence for the circulation of a new serotype and associated risk factors

Cetre-Sossah C., Roger F., Sailleau C., Rieau L., Zientara S., Breard E., Viarouge C., Beral M., Esnault O., Cardinale E.. 2014. Veterinary Microbiology, 170 (3-4) : p. 383-390.

DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.007

Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are members of the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family transmitted between ruminants by the bites of Culicoides midges. BTV went undetected in Reunion Island between its first documented emergence in 1979 and two other serious outbreaks with both BTV-3 and EHDV-6 in 2003, and both EHDV-6 and BTV-2 in 2009. In these outbreaks, infected animals developed symptoms including hyperthermia, anorexia, congestion, prostration and nasal discharge. Samples were collected in 2011 to assess the prevalence of BT and EHD in ruminants native to Reunion Island by serological analysis. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 67 farms, including a total of 276 cattle, 142 sheep and 71 goats. The prevalence rates of BT and EHD were 58% (95% CI [54.03-62.94]) and 38% (95% CI [33.85-42.63], respectively. Two further suspected outbreaks were confirmed to involve EHDV and BTV/EHDV. A new circulating EHDV serotype 1 of unknown origin was isolated. Our results confirm that the prevalence of both BT and EHD is high and that both are likely currently circulating. A high risk of BTV and EHDV infections was associated with the introduction of ruminants from neighbouring farms without quarantine, the presence of organic and other waste on the farm, and treatment against ectoparasites and insects.

Mots-clés : virus bluetongue; fièvre catarrhale du mouton; orbivirus; Épidémiologie; facteur de risque; maladie des animaux; sérotype; ruminant; réunion; france; maladie hémorragique épizootique

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