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Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty Acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to Its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) cortés

Montoya C., Cochard B., Flori A., Cros D., Lopes R., Cuellar T., Espeout S., Syaputra I., Villeneuve P., Pina M., Ritter E., Leroy T., Billotte N.. 2014. PloS One, 9 (5) : 13 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095412

We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Corte´ s. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

Mots-clés : elaeis guineensis; elaeis oleifera; huile de palme; teneur en lipides; acide gras; amélioration des plantes; locus des caractères quantitatifs; plante de culture; plante sauvage; rendement des cultures; indonésie; qtl

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