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Developing core collections to optimize the management and the exploitation of diversity of the coffee Coffea canephora

Leroy T., De Bellis F., Legnaté H., Musoli P., Kalongji A., Loor Solorzano R.G., Cubry P.. 2014. Genetica, 142 (3) : p. 185-199.

DOI: 10.1007/s10709-014-9766-5

The management of diversity for conservation and breeding is of great importance for all plant species and is particularly true in perennial species, such as the coffee Coffea canephora. This species exhibits a large genetic and phenotypic diversity with six different diversity groups. Large field collections are available in the Ivory Coast, Uganda and other Asian, American and African countries but are very expensive and time consuming to establish and maintain in large areas. We propose to improve coffee germplasm management through the construction of genetic core collections derived from a set of 565 accessions that are characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. Core collections of 12, 24 and 48 accessions were defined using two methods aimed to maximize the allelic diversity (Maximization strategy) or genetic distance (Maximum- Length Sub-Tree method). A composite core collection of 77 accessions is proposed for both objectives of an optimal management of diversity and breeding. This core collection presents a gene diversity value of 0.8 and exhibits the totality of the major alleles (i.e., 184) that are present in the initial set. The seven proposed core collections constitute a valuable tool for diversity management and a foundation for breeding programs. The use of these collections for collection management in research centers and breeding perspectives for coffee improvement are discussed.

Mots-clés : coffea canephora; amélioration des plantes; collection de matériel génétique; marqueur génétique; microsatellite; ressource génétique végétale; conservation du matériel génétique; variation génétique; guyane française; ouganda; république démocratique du congo; brésil; côte d'ivoire; Équateur; languedoc-roussillon; france

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