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Rami J.F., Leal-Bertioli S.C.M., Foncéka D., Moretzsohn M.C., Bertioli D.J.. 2014. In : Eds. Aditya Pratap, Jitendra Kumar. Alien gene transfer in crop plants, Volume 2: Achievements and impacts. Philadelphia : Springer, p. 253-279.

DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-9572-7_12

Groundnut or peanut is an important legume nut known for its multifarious uses including oil production, direct human consumption as food and also animal consumption in the form of hay, silage and cake. Being a grain legume, peanut has an important nutritional value for human beings, and its nutritional value has been exploited for combating malnutrition in children. The breeding objectives in groundnut focus on increasing yield, incorporating resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and improving oil and nutritional quality including safety of its consumption by humans and animals. However, limited genetic variability in the cultivated germplasm and diffi culties in hybridisation have slowed down the progress in groundnut breeding. The wild relatives are considered as sources of several agriculturally important traits including resistance to pests and pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and variable nutritional value. These resources have been used in groundnut breeding programmes for improving the above traits, simultaneously addressing the constraint of reproductive barrier in successful hybridisation arising due to different ploidy levels of A. hypogaea and its wild relatives. This has been achieved through different routes: the hexaploid pathway, two different diploid/ tetraploid pathways and genetic engineering-based methods. Nonetheless, the use of wild introgressions in groundnut improvement programmes has not been up to the desired extent, and therefore concerted efforts for a large-scale generalised introgression programme are required. This chapter discusses the evaluation and utilisation of alien introgressions in groundnut improvement, the achievements made hitherto and the future strategies for initiating a large-scale introgression programme.

Mots-clés : arachis hypogaea; brésil

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