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Oestrogen and insulin-like growth factors during the reproduction and growth of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and their interactions

Baroiller J.F., D'Cotta H., Shved N., Berishvili G., Toguyeni A., Fostier A., Eppler E., Reinecke M.. 2014. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 205 : p. 142-150.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.07.011

Oestrogens and insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) play both a central role in the regulation of reproduction and growth and can interact especially in species showing a clear-cut sex-linked growth dimorphism (SGD) like in tilapia. Aromatase is essential in ovarian differentiation and oogenesis since it controls oestrogen synthesis. During tilapia sex differentiation, aromatase cyp19a1a expression increases from 9 days post-fertilization (dpf), resulting in high oestradiol level. High temperature, exogenous androgens or aromatase inhibitors override genetic sex differentiation inducing testes development through the suppression of cyp19a1a gene expression and aromatase activity. Supplementation with 17ß-oestradiol (E2) of gonadectomized juveniles induced a sustained and higher E2 plasma level than in intact or gonadectomized controls and both sexes showed reduced growth. Juvenile and mature females treated with the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione had 19% lower E2 plasma level compared to controls and they showed a 32% increased growth after 28 days of treatment. Altogether, these data suggest that E2 inhibits female growth leading to the SGD. Regarding Igf-1, mRNA and peptide appeared in liver at _4 dpf and then in organs involved in growth and metabolism, indicating a role in early growth, metabolism and organogenesis. Gonad igf-1 showed an early expression and the peptide could be detected at _7 dpf in somatic cells. It appeared in germ cells at the onset of ovarian (29 dpf) and testicular (52 dpf) meiosis. In testis, Igf-1 together with steroids may regulate spermatogenesis whereas in ovary it participates in steroidogenesis regulation. Igf-1 and Igf-2 promote proliferation of follicular cells and oocyte maturation. Igf-3 expression is gonad specific and localized in the ovarian granulosa or testicular interstitial cells. In developing gonads igf-3 is up-regulated in males but down-regulated in females. In contrast, bream Gh injections increased igf-1 mRNA in male and female liver and ovaries but gonadal igf-3 was not affected. Thus, local Igf-1 and Igf-2 may play crucial roles in the formation, development and function of gonads while Igf-3 depending on the species is involved in male and female reproduction. Furthermore, precocious ethynylestradiol (EE) exposure induced lasting effects on growth, through pituitary gh inhibition, local suppression of igf-1 expression and in testis only down-regulation of igf-3 mRNA. In conclusion, SGD in tilapia may be driven through an inhibitory effect due to E2 synthesis in female and involving Igfs regulation.

Mots-clés : oreochromis niloticus; physiologie animale; croissance; reproduction; développement biologique; oestrogène; température de l'eau; facteur de croissance igf; différenciation sexuelle; détermination du sexe

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