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Phenol homeostasis is ensured in vanilla fruit by storage under solid form in a new chloroplast-derived organelle, the phenyloplast

Brillouet J.M., Verdeil J.L., Odoux E., Lartaud M., Grisoni M., Conejero G.. 2014. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65 (9) : p. 2427-2435.

DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru126

A multiple cell imaging approach combining immunofluorescence by confocal microscopy, fluorescence spectral analysis by multiphotonic microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy identified the site of accumulation of 4-O-(3-methoxybenzaldehyde) ?-d-glucoside, a phenol glucoside massively stockpiled by vanilla fruit. The glucoside is sufficiently abundant to be detected by spectral analysis of its autofluorescence. The convergent results obtained by these different techniques demonstrated that the phenol glucoside accumulates in the inner volume of redifferentiating chloroplasts as solid amorphous deposits, thus ensuring phenylglucoside cell homeostasis. Redifferentiation starts with the generation of loculi between thylakoid membranes which are progressively filled with the glucoside until a fully matured organelle is obtained. This peculiar mode of storage of a phenolic secondary metabolite is suspected to occur in other plants and its generalization in the Plantae could be considered. This new chloroplastderived organelle is referred to as a 'phenyloplast'.

Mots-clés : vanilla planifolia; composé phénolique; chloroplaste; stockage; homéostasie; fruit; physiologie végétale; glucoside; technique analytique; microscopie immunofluorescente; microscopie; réunion; france; phényloplaste; gousse de vanille

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