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Rice Breeding in Latin America

Martinez C.P., Torres E.A., Châtel M., Mosquera G., Duitama J., Ishitani M., Selvaraj M., Dedicova B., Tohmé J., Grenier C., Lorieux M., Cruz M., Berrío L., Corredor E., Zorrilla de San Martin G., Breseghello F., Peixoto O., Colombari Filho J.M., Pereira de Castro A., Iraçu Gindri Lopes S., Barbosa M., Daltrozzo Funck G.R., Blanco P.H., Perez de Vida F.B., Molina F., Rosas J., Martínez S., Bonnecarrere V., Garaycochea S., Carracelas G., Marin A., Correa-Victoria F.J., Camargo I., Bruzzone C.B.. 2014. In : Janick, J. (ed.). Plant Breeding Reviews: Volume 38. Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell, p. 187-277. (Plant Breeding Reviews, 38).

Rice breeding has made important contributions to Latin America. More than 400 cultivars were released from 1975 to 2012, which helped to raise total production to >27 million tonnes obtained from 5.7 million hectares (average for 2010-2012). Rice production provides ?US$8.8 billion for thousands of farmers in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The result of higher yields in the irrigated sector was to triple rice production in LAC while area did not grow, thus preserving more fragile environments. Several estimates on genetic gains for grain yield have been carried out in LAC. In temperate irrigated rice, the estimates are around 1.5-2.6% per year. In the tropical irrigated, it is ?1% and in the upland rice the estimate is ?1.4% per year. Different breeding strategies, including pedigree, modified bulk, recurrent selection methods, anther culture, interspecific crosses, composite populations, quantitative trait loci (QTL) introgression, and recombinant inbred lines, accompanied by shuttle breeding schemes, direct seeding, and evaluation/selection in hot spots for main diseases are being used by CIAT and NARES in the region. In this process, methods for screening for diseases and other stresses were established. Networking has been a cornerstone for success and several networks such as INGER, FLAR, and HIAAL were created. Looking forward, as farmers' yields are approaching the genetic yield potential exhibited by current cultivars, as a result of improved agronomic management, a new breakthrough is needed in terms of more productive cultivars. To achieve this goal, a strategy is needed that includes strong pipelines focused on specific environments and markets; better product profiling; integration between discovery, development, and delivery; and new breeding strategies using cuttingedge technologies and new breeding methods to accelerate genetic gains. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : oryza; amérique latine

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Culture des plantes; Protection des végétaux : considérations générales

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