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Occurrence and distribution of Banana bunchy top virus related agro-ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo

Mukwa L.F.T., Muengula M., Zinga I., Kalonji A., Iskra Caruana M.L., Bragard C.. 2015. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5 (5) : p. 647-658.

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55079

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting production and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiological survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers' fields for two consecutive seasons covering 72 sites in five provinces of south western of RDC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of the Banana bunchy top virus in five provinces of South Western of DRC, with emphasis on the agro-ecological factors. A total of 174 Musa spp. leaves samples were collected and analyzed by PCR. The results revealed the presence of BBTV in all provinces investigated. The frequency of BBTV was 6.3% in Bandundu, 12.1% in Kasaï Oriental, 17.8% Bas Congo, 1.1% in Katanga and 7.5% Kinshasa Urban and Peri-urban. Results also revealed that BBTV occurred in experimental station and farmers' fields, both having all cooking and dessert bananas. The high prevalence of BBTV seemed to be linked to multiple introductions of planting materials in the Bas Congo province during 1990 and 2002. However, the province of Katanga had not experienced the introduction of planting material. This factor would explain the lowest prevalence of Banana bunchy top virus in this province. The results indicated that there was a real need to facilitate access to genetically improved and healthy certified planting material in these provinces.

Mots-clés : musa; virus bunchy top bananier; dynamique des populations; distribution géographique; enquête pathologique; pcr; enquête sur exploitations agricoles; agroécosystème; système de culture; fertilisation; pesticide; république démocratique du congo; banana bunchy top virus

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