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Rodents and risk in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: Seroprevalence of selected zoonotic viruses in rodents and humans

Van Cuong N., Carrique-Mas J., Be Hien V., Ngoc An N., Tri Tue N., Lam Anh N., Hong Anh P., The Phuc N., Baker S., Voutilainen L., Jääskejäinen A., Huhtamo E., Utriainen M., Sironen T., Vaheri A., Henttonen H., Vapalahti O., Chaval Y., Morand S., Bryant J.. 2015. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 15 (1) : p. 65-72.

In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : rattus norvegicus; enquête pathologique; santé animale; santé publique; maladie transmise par vecteur; transmission des maladies; Épidémiologie; virologie; sérologie; orthopoxvirus; hantavirus; picornaviridae; arenaviridae; flavivirus; zoonose; genre humain; bandicota; rattus; rongeur; mékong; viet nam; parechovirus; rattus exulans; rattus argentiventer; bandicota indica; arenavirus

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux; Autres thèmes

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