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Quinoa genetic resources and ex situ conservation

Rojas W., Pinto M., Alanoca C., Gomez Pando L., Leon-Lobos P., Alercia A., Diulgheroff S., Padulosi S., Bazile D.. 2015. In : Bazile Didier (ed.), Bertero Hector Daniel (ed.), Nieto Carlos (ed.). State of the art report on quinoa around the world in 2013. Rome : FAO, p. 56-82.

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a potentially strategic crop that plays a vital role in food security and sovereignty. It makes an important contribution to the staple needs of the population and is part of the ancestral and cultural heritage of Andean countries. Its wide varietal diversity constitutes an extraordinarily valuable gene pool: wide range of colours of plant, inflorescence and seed; varying crop cycle duration; high nutrient and agro-industrial value; and high saponin content of grains. Thanks to its extraordinary genetic diversity, the crop is very adaptable to different agro-ecological conditions (soils, rainfall, temperature and altitude) and is tolerant to frost, drought and salinity. Worldwide, 16 422 accessions of quinoa and its wild relatives (C. quinoa, C. album, C. berlandieri, C. hircinum, C. petiolare, C. murale and Chenopodium sp.) are conserved in 59 genebanks distributed in 30 countries. Genebanks in the Andean region conserve more than 88% of the crop's accessions. Despite this immense diversity, it is not currently used to the full. The grain and processed products available on market are derived from a small set of landraces, which means that the genetic potential is underutilized. In general, countries do not have clear policies on the ex situ conservation of quinoa germplasm collections. Within countries with the greatest diversity, genebanks are poorly linked; and between different countries, the links are even worse. Each genebank operates according to the goals of the institution, often reflecting individual interests of researchers rather than a strategy planned to complement the national programme. This chapter reviews collections of quinoa germplasm in differ- 57 ent countries, particularly in the Andean region, the distribution of its genetic variability and a description of the infrastructure and facilities used for its conservation. Information is also provided on characterization and evaluation, procedures for regeneration and multiplication and the documentation systems adopted. Lastly, the links between in situ and ex situ conservation are discussed. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : chenopodium quinoa; collection de matériel génétique; conservation des ressources; ressource génétique végétale; variation génétique; adaptabilité; variété; conditions météorologiques; facteur du milieu; région andine; pérou; bolivie (État plurinational de); argentine; Équateur; colombie; chili; monde

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