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Assessment and adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) to the agroclimatic conditions in Mali, West Africa: An example of South-North-South cooperation

Coulibaly A., Sangaré A., Konate M., Traoré S., Ruiz K.B., Martinez E.A., Zurita A., Antognoni F., Biondi S., Maldonado S., Léon P., Bazile D.. 2015. In : Bazile Didier (ed.), Bertero Hector Daniel (ed.), Nieto Carlos (ed.). State of the art report on quinoa around the world in 2013. Santiago du Chili : FAO, p. 524-533.

Quinoa's adaptation was tested in Mali, West Africa, where the difficult agroclimatic conditions are similar to those in central northern Chile. The traditional varieties used were predominantly from Chile ('A64', 'BO25', 'BO78', 'PRP', 'PRJ', 'UDeC9', 'R49', 'VI-1', 'Regalona', 'Mix'), plus two crop cultivars from Argentina ('Roja Tastina' and 'Sajama') and one varietyfrom Bolivia. Trials began in 2007 and continue today. They tested sowing in the rainy season (June-Oct.) and in the dry season (Nov.- Mar.). Pests, diseases and yields were assessed, taking into account also the grain storage conditions and more sustainable soil management (compost). Some Altiplano cultivars were recalcitrant ('A64', 'R49' and 'MIX'), while the traditional varieties from central southern Chile gave satisfactory yields (1-2 tonnes/ha). Ideally, seeds should be sown each season to avoid a reduction in germination vigour which is caused by the ambient humidity and high temperatures characteristic of in situ storage in tropical zones. The crop cycle is 90-100 days for the accessions from Chile and up to 108-119 days for the accessions from Argentina. The panicles can be attacked by fungal diseases that reduce productivity in the rainy season. The presence of phytophagous insects (Bemisia, Aphis and Aspavia genera) was observed, as well as Coccinellidae, which are their natural predators in biological control. Quinoa has the potential to improve the supply of high quality protein in Africa. Pests in the rainy season and insect infestation can be controlled by adopting ecological management practices, using saponins from the same quinoa varieties. The limiting factor is the energy requirement for using water (not readily available in the dry season) and for mechanized threshing. The population's use and acceptance of quinoa can be expected to be high, on the basis of past experience introducing other crops from America (potato, maize and tomato) to this continent and given the culinary similarity with millet and rice. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : rendement des cultures; protection des plantes; zone agroclimatique; facteur climatique; facteur du milieu; adaptation; pratique culturale; chenopodium quinoa; mali; adaptation aux conditions du milieu

Thématique : Culture des plantes; Physiologie végétale : croissance et développement; Ravageurs des plantes

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