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Genetic mapping of centromeres in the nine Citrus clementina chromosomes using half-tetrad analysis and recombination patterns in unreduced and haploid gametes

Aleza P., Cuenca J., Hernandez M., Juarez J., Navarro L., Ollitrault P.. 2015. BMC Plant Biology, 15 (80) : 13 p..

DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0464-y

Background: Mapping centromere locations in plant species provides essential information for the analysis of genetic structures and population dynamics. The centromere's position affects the distribution of crossovers along a chromosome and the parental heterozygosity restitution by 2n gametes is a direct function of the genetic distance to the centromere. Sexual polyploidisation is relatively frequent in Citrus species and is widely used to develop new seedless triploid cultivars. The study's objectives were to (i) map the positions of the centromeres of the nine Citrus clementina chromosomes; (ii) analyse the crossover interference in unreduced gametes; and (iii) establish the pattern of genetic recombination in haploid clementine gametes along each chromosome and its relationship with the centromere location and distribution of genic sequences. Results: Triploid progenies were derived from unreduced megagametophytes produced by second-division restitution. Centromere positions were mapped genetically for all linkage groups using half-tetrad analysis. Inference of the physical locations of centromeres revealed one acrocentric, four metacentric and four submetacentric chromosomes. Crossover interference was observed in unreduced gametes, with variation seen between chromosome arms. For haploid gametes, a strong decrease in the recombination rate occurred in centromeric and pericentromeric regions, which contained a low density of genic sequences. In chromosomes VIII and IX, these low recombination rates extended beyond the pericentromeric regions. The genomic region corresponding to a genetic distance < 5cM from a centromere represented 47% of the genome and 23% of the genic sequences. Conclusions: The centromere positions of the nine citrus chromosomes were genetically mapped. Their physical locations, inferred from the genetic ones, were consistent with the sequence constitution and recombination pattern along each chromosome. However, regions with low recombination rates extended beyond the pericentromeric regions of some chromosomes into areas richer in genic sequences. The persistence of strong linkage disequilibrium between large numbers of genes promotes the stability of epistatic interactions and multilocus-controlled traits over successive generations but also maintains multi-trait associations. Identification of the centromere positions will allow the development of simple methods to analyse unreduced gamete formation mechanisms in a large range of genotypes and further modelling of genetic inheritance in sexual polyploidisation breeding schemes.

Mots-clés : citrus; citrus reticulata; chromosome; triploïdie; recombinaison; citrus clementina; espagne

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