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A social-ecological approach to landscape epidemiology: geographic variation and avian influenza

Cumming G.S., Abolnik C., Caron A., Gaidet N., Grewar J., Hellard E., Henry D.A.W., Reynolds C.. 2015. Landscape Ecology, 30 (6) : p. 963-985.

DOI: 10.1007/s10980-015-0182-8

Erratum paru dans Landscape Ecology (2015) 30 p. 987. Context Landscape structure influences host-parasite- pathogen dynamics at multiple scales in space and time. Landscape epidemiology, which connects disease ecology and landscape ecology, is still an emerging field. Objective We argue that landscape epidemiology must move beyond simply studying the influence of landscape configuration and composition on epidemiological processes and towards amore comparative, systems approach that better incorporates social-ecological complexity. Methods We illustrate our argument with a detailed review, based on a single conceptual systems model, of geographic variation in drivers of avian influenza in Western Europe, Southeast Asia, and Southern Africa. Results Our three study regions are similar in some ways but quite different in others. The same underlying mechanisms apply in all cases, but differences in the attributes of key components and linkages (most notably avian diversity, the abiotic environment, land use and land cover, and food production systems) create significant differences in avian influenza virus prevalence and human risk between regions. Conclusions Landscape approaches can connect local- and continental-scale elements of epidemiology. Adopting a landscape-focused systems perspective on the problem facilitates the identification of the most important commonalities and differences, guiding both science and policy, and helps to identify elements of the problem on which further research is needed. More generally, our review demonstrates the importance of social-ecological interactions and comparative approaches for landscape epidemiology.

Mots-clés : Épidémiologie; Écologie; paysage; sociologie; Étude de cas; influenzavirus aviaire; oiseau; animal sauvage; animal domestique; transmission des maladies; distribution géographique; analyse de système; interactions biologiques; maladie des animaux; grippe aviaire; asie du sud-est; afrique australe; europe occidentale; approche systémique

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