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Next generation variety development for sustainable production of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.): A review

van der Vossen H., Bertrand B., Charrier A.. 2015. Euphytica, 204 (2) : p. 243-256.

Arabica coffees (60 % of current world coffee production) are generally sold at considerably better prices than robustas on account of superior beverage quality. However, costs of production are much higher, mainly due to more stringent demands for soil and climatic conditions, crop management, primary processing and control of several pests and diseases including the potentially very destructive coffee leaf rust (CLR) and berry disease (CBD). Breeding for disease resistance in combination with vigour, productivity and quality started in the early 1920s in India, but especially in the second half of the 20th century comprehensive breeding programmes have been implemented in several other coffee producing countries. Many of the resulting CLR- and CBD + CLR-resistant cultivars (true-breeding lines and F1 hybrids) meet the required standards of profitable and sustainable crop production. Challenges of more recent date include limited access to additional genetic resources of Coffea arabica, breakdown of host resistance to CLR, aggravating insect pest problems and the increasingly negative impact of climate change on arabica coffee production worldwide. This review discusses prospects of breeding and disseminating next generation (hybrid) cultivars of arabica coffee for sustainable coffee production under changing conditions of diseases, pests and climate. International networking on coffee breeding will facilitate sharing of resources (financial, genetic) and scientific information, application of genomics-assisted selection technologies, and pre-breeding for specific characters. Breeding and multiplication of new cultivars well adapted to the local environment will continue to be carried out at national or regional levels. A tree crop like arabica coffee does not lend itself to centralized variety development and dissemination on a global scale. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : coffea; ravageur des plantes; nématode des plantes; hemileia vastatrix; colletotrichum; hybride; qualité; variété; sélection; ressource génétique végétale; génomique; lutte antiravageur; tolérance à la sécheresse; résistance aux maladies; changement climatique; développement durable; amélioration des plantes; coffea arabica; colletotrichum kahawae

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Maladies des plantes; Ravageurs des plantes; Troubles divers des plantes

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