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Acceptability of Akpan, a fermented maize yoghurt-like product, by French consumers. In Deliverable D Initial report on sensory and European consumer acceptance for group 1. Project AFTER ¿African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research¿

Fliedel G., Grabulos J., Franco I.M., Monteiro M.J., Maraval I., Lahon M.C., Forestier-Chiron N., Declemy A.L., Adinsi L., Akissoé N.H., Pallet D., Pintado M., Tomlins K.I.. 2013. s.l. : s.n., 29 p..

French consumer acceptability of Akpan, a traditional Beninse yoghurt-like product, was carried out in Montpellier, France. A sort of ¿All in one¿ method was used comprising an hedonic scoring (appearance, odour, taste, texture and overall liking using a 9-point scale, but also sweetness and acidity using a JAR scale), a Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) question with 25 sensory and 6 perceptions descriptors, and a questionnaire on the views about the product with some socio-demographic information. Four Akpan products were tested by 104 consumers: Natural Akpan AN, and Natural Akpan added with three ingredients (sugar AS; condensed milk AM; condensed milk and sugar AMS). The overall acceptability of Akpan products significantly differed. Only Akpans added with sugar were on average acceptance (mean score around 5-6) but found too sweet by most of consumers. The two others, with no sugar added, were the least liked, with a mean score lower than 5. Acidity was perceived differently by the consumers depending of the products and their sensibility. Three groups of consumers were identified: the Akpan dislikers (25%), the sweet Akpan likers (32%) and Natural Akpan dislikers (44%). Through a MFA analysis of CATA results, AN was described as tasteless, watery, mealy, sour, with fermented taste, pasty consistency, neutral odour and was associated to bitter, astringent and rough perceptions. AMS was related to cereal and yoghurt taste, creamy consistency, milk odour, smooth appearance and to nutritious perception. AS was related to Bulgarian yoghurt appearance, citrus or floral taste and odour, homogenous consistency and, to artificial perception. AM was related to compact appearance, cereal and fermented odour, milk taste, and to natural perception. Sensory terms were found close to perception terms in MFA plan and both were highly correlated to overall acceptance. Most of the consumers disliked by the Akpan products and would not buy them (86%). For the least liked product, 44% of consumers would like to change everything except colour. For the most liked product, 37% would like to change odour, taste and texture. 42% thought that Akpan could not replace any product they know well and 36% thought that it could replace soy yoghurt. 30% of the respondents could buy this product for intolerance to dairies and pleasure and 60% for all the reasons except pleasure and diet.

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