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Développer durablement la mécanisation pour améliorer la productivité de l'agriculture familiale en Afrique Subsaharienne

Side C.S., Havard M.. 2015. International Journal of Advanced Studies and Research in Africa, 6 (1) : p. 34-43.

In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the agricultural production energy is supplied by men (65%), animals (25%) and motor (10%). Family farming, more than 75% of farms, provides relevant incomes of rural populations but are often considered as unproductive because they used essentially human energy and manual tools. However, draught power continues to expand in favorable areas, while the use of tractors and tillers remains marginal. After an overview of mechanization and lessons learned from the past experiences, this article proposes measures for sustainable development of agricultural mechanization. Method of analysis are based on the planning objectives of mechanization, the analysis of the supply and demand of agricultural mechanization and environmental scan of mechanization services. This study highlights significant variations in levels of mechanization in different regions, farming systems, as well as agricultural operations. In addition, agricultural mechanization support measures and actions are insufficient and unsustainable. Indeed, they are not based on a specific, structured and tailored request, and don't take into account the capacity building needed to support the agricultural mechanization process. The major stake in SSA for the coming decades is to equip rural areas to reach the growing needs of production, storage and processing of agricultural products for sustainable food security of a growing population. Governments have a key role to play in creating economic, social conditions and set up a policy for sustainable development of agricultural mechanization. Public-private partnerships are also needed to improve agricultural mechanization level in SSA. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : Énergie animale; système de culture; développement durable; durabilité; mécanisation; exploitation agricole familiale; afrique francophone; afrique au sud du sahara; motorisation

Thématique : Machines et matériels agricoles; Economie familiale et artisanale; Systèmes et modes de culture

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