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Energetic valorisation of agricultural by?products in the sub?Saharan zone: Biomass pre?conditioning via flash pyrolysis

Melzer M.. 2013. Ouagadougou : Institut international d'ingénierie de l'eau et l'environnement, 338 p.. Thèse de doctorat -- , Thèse de doctorat --.

Sub-Saharan West Africa lacks of natural resources, especially for energy production. By-products of agro-industry as cashew nut shells (CNS), jatropha (Jc) and shea (Sc) press cakes were identified as available resources for energetic valorisation. These biomasses are characterised by high extractive contents (cashew nut shell liquid/CNSL or triglycerides) which are the reason for toxic fumes during combustion. The thesis investigated the feasibility of flash pyrolysis as alternative process for these resources, more specifically the impact of the extractives on yields, the composition and the stability of flash pyrolysis oils. The feedstock were derived into samples covering the whole range of extractive contents (from de-oiled press cakes, ~0 wt%; to pure extractives, 100 wt%) which were characterised and pyrolysed in two laboratory devices (TGA and tubular furnace), then by applying flash pyrolysis conditions in a fluidised bed reactor. No significant interaction in-between the solid matrix and the extractives during pyrolysis were observed but different products were identified. CNSL volatises between 250 and 320°C, several phenolic compounds and typical compounds of crude CNSL were found to be present in the pyrolysis oil. In contrast, triglycerides are entirely decomposed at 380 to 420°C to give linear hydro-carbon chains. Some interaction products of the triglycerides with proteins were identified. Additionally, the experiments with the pilot plant have shown operational difficulties in the fluidised bed, which are linked to specific properties of the press cakes. Thus, further optimisations of process conditions are suggested. To overcome the observed phase separation of the pyrolysis oils mixtures with other biofuels were studied. The obtained emulsions are more homogeneous but the physical stability is still insufficient despite the addition of surfactants. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : composition chimique; tourteau d'oléagineux; huile végétale; toxicité; composé phénolique; triglycéride; extrait d'origine végétale; utilisation des déchets; vitellaria paradoxa; jatropha; anacardium occidentale; biocarburant; pyrolyse; déchet agricole; bioénergie; biomasse; afrique occidentale; afrique au sud du sahara

Thématique : Sources d'énergie renouvelable; Technologie des produits forestiers

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