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Epidemiological surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases

Thompson P., Etter E.. 2015. Revue scientifique et Technique - Office International des Epizooties, 34 (1) : p. 235-247.

DOI: 10.20506/rst.34.1.2356

Compared with many other diseases, the ever-increasing threat of vectorborne diseases (VBDs) represents a great challenge to public and animal health managers. Complex life cycles, changing distribution ranges, a variety of potential vectors and hosts, and the possible role of reservoirs make surveillance for VBDs a grave concern in a changing environment with increasing economic constraints. Surveillance activities may have various specific objectives and may focus on clinical disease, pathogens, vectors, hosts and/or reservoirs, but ultimately such activities should improve our ability to predict, prevent and/or control the diseases concerned. This paper briefly reviews existing and newly developed tools for the surveillance of VBDs. A range of examples, by no means exhaustive, illustrates that VBD surveillance usually involves a combination of methods to achieve its aims, and is best accomplished when these techniques are adapted to the specific environment and constraints of the region. More so than any other diseases, VBDs respect no administrative boundaries; in addition, animal, human and commodity movements are increasing dramatically, with illegal or unknown movements difficult to quantify. Vector-borne disease surveillance therefore becomes a serious issue for local and national organisations and is being conducted more and more at the regional and international level through multidisciplinary networks. With economic and logistical constraints, tools for optimising and evaluating the performance of surveillance systems are essential and examples of recent developments in this area are included. The continuous development of mapping, analytical and modelling tools provides us with an enhanced ability to interpret, visualise and communicate surveillance results. This review also demonstrates the importance of the link between surveillance and research, with interactions and benefits in both directions. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : maladie transmise par vecteur; surveillance épidémiologique; symptome; gestion du risque; Épidémiologie; méthodologie; santé animale; santé publique; transmission des maladies; dynamique des populations; distribution géographique; Étude de cas; monde

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