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Adaptation to salinity

Ahmadi N., Baroiller J.F., D'Cotta H., Morillon R.. 2016. In : Torquebiau Emmanuel (ed.), Manley David (trad.), Cowan Paul (trad.). Climate change and agriculture worldwide. Heibelberg : Springer, p. 45-58.

DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-7462-8_4

The increase in salinity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is a major consequence of current climate changes. It is therefore essential to be able to propose more adapted genotypes to farmers whether it concerns farmed fish or annual and perennial crops. To address these challenges, research is focused on acquiring better knowledge on mechanisms of adaptation to salt stress in order to effectively guide genetic improvement programmes and optimise breeding. We present various cases of adaptation to salinity in fish, rice and citrus. The selection of a tilapia strain adapted to salinity, especially via successive hybridizations and backcrosses, broadens the prospects for these farmed fish. Breeding rice to enhance salt tolerance has long been based on 'conventional' selection methods and is now oriented towards molecular marker assisted selection, while citrus adaptation to salt stress is based on rootstock choices and exploitation of polyploidy.

Mots-clés : changement climatique; adaptation aux changements climatiques; Écosystème; salinité; salinité du sol; stress osmotique; tolérance au sel; sélection; génotype; amélioration des plantes; amélioration des animaux; porte greffe; physiologie végétale; Étude de cas; citrus; tilapia (genre); poisson (animal); oryza sativa; adaptation

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