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Enhanced drought adaptation in African savanna crops

Lacape J.M., Loison R., Foncéka D.. 2016. In : Torquebiau Emmanuel (ed.), Manley David (trad.), Cowan Paul (trad.). Climate change and agriculture worldwide. Heidelberg : Springer, p. 59-71.

DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-7462-8_5

Producing varieties tailored for sustainable agriculture, especially with high resilience in response to environmental constraints, is a challenge for geneticists. In the framework of climate risk characterization regarding drought, a multidisciplinary approach combining ecophysiology and genetics could be effective for developing varietal ideotypes that combine adaptive traits that could be useful for breeding. Selection initiatives geared towards obtaining varieties with high drought resistance are focused on natural or hybridization-based diversity and on adaptive trait screening tests. Examples of research programmes developed in partnership by CIRAD are presented with regard to two tropical crops-cotton and groundnut. The beneficial features of African sorghum associated with its photoperiodic nature are discussed. Broad-ranging investigations to tap the gene pool of wild species related to cultivated species are required to make effective use of the genetic diversity.

Mots-clés : plante de culture; gossypium; sorghum; adaptation; sécheresse; stress dû à la sécheresse; génétique; Écologie; physiologie végétale; adaptation aux changements climatiques; amélioration des plantes; savane; sélection; mécanisme de défense; intéraction génotype environnement; hybridation; plante sauvage; tolérance à la sécheresse; arachis hypogaea; Étude de cas; gossypium hirsutum; afrique

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