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Live bird markets characterization and trading network analysis in Mali: implications for the surveillance and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease

Molia S., Boly I.A., Duboz R., Coulibaly B., Guitian J., Grosbois V., Fournié G., Pfeiffer D.U.. 2016. Acta Tropica, 155 : p. 77-88.

DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.12.003

Live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in poultry. Our study had two objectives: (1) characterizing LBMs in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of AI and ND, and (2) identifying which LBMs should be targeted for surveillance and control based on properties of the live poultry trade network. Two surveys were conducted in 2009¿2010: a descriptive study in all 96 LBMs of an area encompassing approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population and a network analysis study in Sikasso county, the main poultry supplying county for the capital city Bamako. Regarding LBMs' characteristics, risk factors for the presence of AI and ND viruses (being open every day, more than 2 days before a bird is sold, absence of zoning to segregate poultry-related work flow areas, waste removal or cleaning and disinfecting less frequently than on a daily basis, trash disposal of dead birds and absence of manure processing) were present in 80¿100% of the LBMs. Furthermore, LBMs tended to have wide catchment areas because of consumers' preference for village poultry meat, thereby involving a large number of villages in their supply chain. In the poultry trade network from/to Sikasso county, 182 traders were involved and 685 links were recorded among 159 locations. The network had a heterogeneous degree distribution and four hubs were identified based on measures of in-degrees, out-degrees and betweenness: the markets of Medine and Wayerma and the fairs of Farakala and Niena. These results can be used to design biosecurity-improvement interventions and to optimize the prevention, surveillance and control of transmissible poultry diseases in Malian LBMs. Further studies should investigate potential drivers (seasonality, prices) of the poultry trade network and the acceptability of biosecurity and behavior-change recommendations in the Malian socio-cultural context.

Mots-clés : influenzavirus aviaire; maladie de newcastle; surveillance épidémiologique; contrôle de maladies; commercialisation; animal; poulet; volaille; circuit de commercialisation; gestion du risque; marché; transmission des maladies; aviculture; paramyxovirus aviaire; virus maladie de newcastle; mali; afrique

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