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Foraging range of arthropods with veterinary interest: new insights for Afrotropical Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using the ring method

Bakhoum M.T., Fall M., Seck M.T., Gardes L., Fall A.G., Diop M., Mall I., Balenghien T., Baldet T., Gimonneau G., Garros C., Bouyer J.. 2016. Acta Tropica, 157 : p. 59-67.

The identification of blood meal source of arthropod vector species contributes to the understanding of host-vector-pathogen interactions. The aim of the current work was to identify blood meal source in Culicoides biting midge species, biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equids, using a new ecological approach. We examined the correlation between blood meal source identified in engorged Culicoides females collected in a suction light trap and the available vertebrate hosts along four rings (200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 m) centered at the trap site and described the foraging range of the three main vector species of veterinary interest present in the study area, C. imicola, C. kingi and C. oxystoma. The study was performed in four sites localized in the Niayes region of Senegal (West Africa) where recent outbreaks of African horse sickness occurred. Blood meal source identification was carried out by species-specific multiplex PCRs with genomic DNA extracted from the abdomen of engorged females collected during nine night collections for twenty-six collections. The four most abundant hosts present in the studied area (horse, cattle, goat and sheep) were surveyed in each ring zone. The blood meal source varied according to Culicoides species and host availability in each site. Culicoides oxystoma and C. imicola females mainly fed on horses readily available at 200 m maximum from the trap location whereas females of C. kingi fed mainly on cattle, at variable distances from the traps (200 to 2,000 m). Culicoides oxystoma may also feed on other vertebrates. We discuss the results in relation with the transmission of Culicoides-borne arboviruses and the species dispersion capacities. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : virus des animaux; peste équine africaine; transmission des maladies; ovin; cheval; caprin; bovin; culicoides oxystoma; culicoides kingi; interactions biologiques; relation hôte parasite; préférence alimentaire; identification; hôte; sang; vecteur de maladie; culicoides; sénégal; arbovirose; vertébré; culicoides imicola

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux

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