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Participation of producers' organizations involved in Peruvians value chains to strengthen innovation systems and service provision

De Nys E., Ramirez-Gaston J., Wissar R., Faure G.. 2011. In : Leena Savisalo (Ed.). 20th European Seminar on Extension Education (ESEE 2011): Private - public partnerships for advisory services in Europe, 30th August - 3rd September 2011, Kirkkonummi, Finland. Proceedings. Kirkkonummi : JTO School of Management, p. 97-98. European Seminar of Extension Education. 20, 2011-08-30/2011-09-03, (Finlande).

As observed in many developing countries the Peruvian government is willing to establish a system of science, technology and innovation, decentralized, plural, and oriented by demand through the private sector. From 2001 to 2010 the INCAGRO project financed by the World Bank designed a new way to identify and finance innovative experiences in rural areas by generating knowledge and technologies useful for stakeholders to improve their productive activities and then their livelihoods taking into account the environmental and social dimensions of the development. The article is aiming at analyzing the role of public action aimed at promoting innovation systems by mainly strengthening POs working in order to stimulate innovation processes and service provision to farmers within different value chain. The agricultural innovation system provides a relevant framework to analyze innovation processes. It highlights some elements to be taken into account to understand the innovation process : the resources and strategies of each stakeholder, the relationships between stakeholders, their social networks. The innovation system could be analyzed at national level focusing on relationships between research organizations, education organizations,extension, private firms. The innovation system could be analyzed at local level on relationships between actors involved in economic activities. In this sense the actors involved in a value chain and the actors providing assistance or services to these actors form an innovation system. Some authors argue that a few actors may play a specific role by strengthening the interactions, increasing the flow of information, or facilitating the negotiations between actors. PO could play such a role because it is an intermediary organization between farmers and the outside world. We carried out a study to better understand the contribution of the projects financed by INCAGRO to the innovation system at value chain level. The objectives of the study are (i) to characterize the innovation processes at local level and the bottlenecks the stakeholders face, (ii) to analyze the role play by POs in the innovation processes and especially in the interactions between the actors dealing with these innovation processes. We selected three value chains including a relevant number of projects financed by INCAGRO and with different level of POs participation within the value chain (alpaca,coffee, grain legume). The INCAGRO database provided the main quantitative features of all of the projects. A literature review of internal documents provided key information on the activities and the results of the different type of projects. For each value chain we selected one area per value chain to carry out in-depth qualitative analysis. The diversity of topics addressed by the INCAGRO projects is more important in the coffee value chain and the alpaca value chain than in the grain legume value chain. This variability depends on the capacities of stakeholders participating in the value chain to influence the choices, the emphasis put by the service providers involved in the INCAGRO projects either on the strengthening of the farmers and POs or on the technology development, the historical links between researchers and other stakeholders involved in the value chain. In many projects managed by POs several activities have been carried out to achieve the objectives including training with producers' groups, individual advice, national and international trips for producers' representatives,specialized advice on production, strengthening of managerial skills, specialized advice on marketing. Advice is provided by several private service providers for each project. Based on the results we can identify the role the POs can really play to stimulate an innovation process and the provision of services and the limits they face.First POs are able to strengthen the production of the members by providing services(information, training, market...

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