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Comparison of kava (Piper methysticum Forst.) varieties by UV absorbance of acetonic extracts and high-performance thin-layer chromatography

Lebot V., Legendre L.. 2016. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 48 : p. 25-33.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2016.01.009

The development of quality standards to regulate the trade of kava (Piper methysticum) in the Pacific necessitates new analytical techniques for routine control of high-quality raw material. In the present study, varieties and parts of the plant were compared for their kavalactone and flavokavin (FK) profiles. Three hundred and eight samples corresponding to 25 noble, 25 two-days and five wichmannii varieties were collected from 203 different plants. Commercial samples were also analysed to test the technique. Overall, 353 samples were prepared (221 roots, 114 stumps, nine basal stems and nine stem peelings). Their acetonic extracts were measured for UV absorbance and analysed by HP-TLC. Two ratios were computed after scanning the plates at 245 nm (K/KL = kavain/total kavalactones) and 366 nm (FK/KL = flavokavins/kavalactones). The results indicate that noble varieties suitable for daily consumption of kava are characterised by high K/KL and low FK/KL. At 400 nm, the mean UV absorbance of acetonic extracts from noble, two-days and wichmannii varieties are 0.69, 0.94 and 1.04, respectively. The significant (+0.757**) correlation between the total FK content and the extracts absorbance at 400 nm indicates that a simple colorimeter can be used to detect poor-quality raw material. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : piper methysticum; variété; commercialisation; composition globale; composition des aliments; flavonoïde; légume racine; technique analytique; hplc; chromatographie en couche mince; rayonnement ultraviolet; colorimétrie; collection de matériel génétique; qualité; identification; consommation alimentaire; chalcone; lactone; composition chimique; vanuatu

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