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Amino acid and fatty acid profile of twenty wild plants used as spices in Cameroon

Abdou Bouba A., Ponka R., Augustin G., Njintang Yanou N., Abul-Hamd El-Sayed M., Montet D., Scher J., Mbofung C.M.. 2016. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4 (2) : p. 29-37.

DOI: 10.12691/ajfst-4-2-1

The amino acids and fatty acids of twenty wild plants used as spices which were collected in Cameroon were investigated. The most important of total non-essential amino acids (TNEAA) contents have been found in A. daniellii (52.04%), C. frutescens (50.53%), D. psilurus (56.22%), H. gabonii (fruit) (58.81%), P. brazzeana (59.11%), S. melongena (59.78 %) and X. aethiopica (56.78%), respectively. Concerning the levels of the essential amino acids (EAA), all had EAA contents of at least 30% except E. giganteus (17.85 %), S. melongena (27.05 %), and T. tetraptera (15.85 %). For WHO protein standard, Lysine was considered as the first limiting amino acid (LAA) for A. daniellii (1.54%), P. brazzeana (16.35%) and S. striatinux (40.19 %). In addition, Meth+Cys were the second LAA for D. psilurus, E. giganteus, S. melongena, S. zenkeri (fruit), T. tetraptera, X. aethiopica (non detected); H. gabonii (fruit) (29.2%), M. myristica (6%), M. whitei (8.8 %) and P. guineense (39.2%), respectively. Spices which contained a large amounts of the essential fatty acids (¿ ¿ 3) were found in C. frutescens (31.98%), F. leprieuri (40.07 %), H. gabonii (fruit) (34.84 %), M. whitei (54.77%), P. umbellatum (39.25%), S. melongena (34.23%), S. zenkeri (fruit) (35.68%), and T. tetraptera (33.64%), respectively. Furthermore, (¿ ¿ 6) were found in D. psilurus (49.29%), H gabonii (bark) (47.91%) and F. xanthoxyloides (43.79%). In addition, (C22: 6n3) were S. zenkeri (bark) (20.45%) and X. aethiopica (30.10 %). These results show that tropical edible plants could contribute significantly to the diets of indigenous population in sub-Saharan Africa and should provide their public health.

Mots-clés : plante à épices; plante sauvage; acide aminé; acide gras; Épice; composition chimique; cameroun

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