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Managing the soil mycorrhizal infectivity to improve the agronomic efficiency of key processes from natural ecosystems integrated in agricultural management systems

Wahbi S., Sanguin H., Baudoin E., Tournier E., Maghraoui T., Prin Y., Hafidi M., Duponnois R.. 2016. In : Plant, soil and microbes. Volume 1: Implications in crop science. Cham : Springer, p. 17-27.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-27455-3_2

Phosphorus (P) is a major nutrient limiting plant growth in many soils. To reduce P deficiencies and ensure plant productivity, large quantities of soluble forms of P fertilizers are applied worldwide every year. However up to 80 % of P chemical fertilizer amendments are lost as it is easily precipitated into insoluble forms (CaHPO4, Ca3(PO4)2, FePO4, and AlPO4) and becomes unavailable for plant uptake. Some soil microorganisms are known to be involved in the solubilization of insoluble phosphate by excreting organic acids, phenolic compounds, protons, and siderophores. Among phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, it has been reported that mycorrhizal fungi have the ability to actively mobilize and translocate nutrients from minerals and soil organic matter, directly to their host plant. Mycorrhizal fungi constitute a key functional group of soil biota that greatly contribute to productivity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. These are ubiquitous components of most of the ecosystems throughout the world and considered key ecological factors in governing the cycles of major plant nutrients and in sustaining the vegetation cover. It has been suggested that the integration of key processes from natural ecosystems (plant-plant facilitation, positive plant soil feedback) in agricultural management systems could resolve increasing agricultural problems. Since these natural processes are frequently connected with arbuscular mycorrhizas, it is necessary to apply mycorrhizal inoculation technologies or to manage native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities to replace or reinforce the mycorrhizal potential in these degraded areas. This chapter aims to describe the influence of some cultural practices (rotation, intercropping, mycorrhizal inoculation) that mimic these natural processes in agrosystems, on soil microbiota (i.e.: soil mycorrhizal infectivity) leading to a sustainable microbial complex with high efficiency against phosphorus mobilization and transferring phosphorus from the soil organic matter or from soil minerals to the host plant.

Mots-clés : agriculture durable; fertilisation; phosphore; engrais phosphaté; solubilisation; mycorhization; inoculation du sol; nutrition des plantes; agroécosystème; symbiose; croissance; matière organique du sol; transport des substances nutritives; rhizosphère; rotation culturale; europe; amérique du sud; afrique

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