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Burkholderia novacaledonica sp. nov. and B. ultramafica sp. nov. isolated from roots of Costularia spp. pioneer plants of ultramafic soils in New Caledonia

Guentas L., Gensous S., Cavaloc Y., Ducousso M., Amir H., De Georges de Ledenon B., Moulin L., Jourand P.. 2016. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 39 (3) : p. 151-159.

The taxonomic status of eleven rhizospheric bacterial strains belonging to the genus Burkholderia and isolated from roots of Costularia (Cyperaceae), tropical herbaceous pioneer plants growing on ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The genetic analyses (16S rRNA genes, gyrB, recA, nreB and cnr) confirmed that all strains are Burkholderia and cluster into two separated groups. The DNA hybridization results showed low relatedness values to the closest relatives Burkholderia species. The phenotypic analyses confirmed that the two groups of strains could be differentiated from each other and from other known Burkholderia species. This polyphasic study revealed that these two groups of strains represent each a novel species of Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia novacaledonica sp. nov. (type strain STM10272T = LMG28615T = CIP110887T) and B. ultramafica sp. nov. (type strain STM10279T = LMG28614T = CIP110886T) are proposed, respectively. These strains of Burkholderia presented specific ecological traits such as the tolerance to the extreme edaphic constraints of ultramafic soils: they grew at pH between 4 and 8 and tolerate the strong unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19) and the high concentrations of heavy metals i.e. Co, Cr, Mn and Ni. Noteworthy B. ultramafica tolerated nickel until 10 mM and B. novacaledonica up to 5 mM. The presence of the nickel (nreB) and cobalt/nickel (cnr) resistance determinants encoding for protein involved in metal tolerance was found in all strains of both groups. Moreover, most of the strains were able to produce plant growth promoting molecules (ACC, IAA, NH3 and siderophores). Such ecological traits suggest that these new species of Burkholderia might be environmentally adaptable plant-associated bacteria and beneficial to plants. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : récupération des sols; cobalt; nickel; biodiversité; facteur édaphique; taxonomie; variation génétique; résistance génétique; génétique des populations; adaptation; tolérance; métal lourd; type de sol chimique; mycorhization; cyperaceae; flore du sol; flore bactérienne; burkholderiaceae; rhizobactérie; nouvelle-calédonie; souche (organisme); terrain minier; costularia; burkholderia ultramafica; burkholderia novacaledonica; burkholderia

Thématique : Biologie du sol; Taxonomie végétale et phyto-géographie; Ecologie végétale; Erosion, conservation et récupération des sols; Physiologie et biochimie végétales

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