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Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife- livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

Abu Samra N., Jori F., Caccio S.M., Frean J., Poonsamy B., Thompson P.. 2016. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 83 (1) : 7 p..

Cryptosporidium infection is one of the most common causes of parasitic diarrhoea worldwide in cattle and humans. In developing countries, human cryptosporidiosis is most prevalent during early childhood and links between zoonotic infection and animal related activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the prevalence and species/genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium among children (< 5 years) and calves (< 6 months) living in a rural farming area adjacent to the Kruger National Park in South Africa, where interactions between humans and wild and domestic animals are known to occur. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8/143 stool samples of children recruited within the hospital system (5.6%; 95% CI 2.4%, 10.7%) and in 2/352 faecal samples of calves (0.6%; 95% CI 0.1%, 2.0%) using the modified Ziehl¿Neelsen (MZN) staining technique. Microscopy positive samples from children were further analysed by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and identified as Cryptosporidium hominis (3/4) and Cryptosporidium meleagridis (1/4). Regardless of the microscopy outcome, randomly selected samples (n = 36) from calves 0¿4 months of age were amplified and sequenced at the 18S rRNA gene using nested PCR. Two calves tested positive (5.6%; 95% CI 1.7%, 18.7%), and revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis. The detection of only two zoonotic species (C. parvum in one calf and C. meleagridis in one child) suggests that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is not currently widespread in our study area; however, the potential exists for amplification of transmission in an immunocompromised population. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : cryptosporidium parvum; zoonose; maladie des animaux; maladie de l'homme; interactions biologiques; parc national; animal sauvage; veau; enfant; analyse du risque; morbidité; variation génétique; génotype; cryptosporidium; afrique du sud; cryptosporidium bovis; cryptosporidium meleagridis

Thématique : Organismes nuisibles des animaux; Maladies des animaux

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