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Effect of farming system on camels calving interval in western Sudan

Bakheit S.A., Faye B., Ahmed A.I., Musa Elshafei I.. 2016. Turkish Journal of Agriculture. Food Science and Technology, 4 (5) : p. 418-423.

Eighteen (18) lactating she-camels and two mature male for mating were used to determine the effect of Management System on camel calving interval, The camels were maintained under semi-intensive (N = 9) and Traditional management system (N = 9) in North Kordofan State, western Sudan. The experimental females in each group kept together with the bull during 18 months. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein since 4-months post-partum and continue 14 successive months at monthly interval. The serum samples were separated and stored at -20°C and were analysed for progesterone concentration using progesterone specific radio immuno assay (RIA) kits. The results indicated that under semi-intensive system 77.8% of females had been pregnant in 5th - 8th month post-partum and the calving interval varying between 17 to 20 months. Under traditional system and during the experimental period 44.5% of females were pregnant in the 11th ¿ 16th month and the calving interval varying between 23 to 28 months. The ratios of pregnant vs non-pregnant during experimental period in semi-intensive and traditional were 88.9% vs 11.1% and 44.5% vs 55.5%, respectively. Beside the behavioural signs progesterone level consider a good indicator for pregnancy in camels. In pregnant females Progesterone concentration increased significantly during early months. The range of Progesterone concentration varied between 1.10 ¿ 5.76 ng/ml and 0.67 ¿ 2.53 ng/ml in semi-intensive and traditional system, respectively. Our results allow quantifying this impact. With a supplemented diet including 2 Kg of concentrates and 5 kg of roughages per day, the fertility rate will be improved of 67%. It would be possible to expect more than two fold young camels in a year by supplemented 5 kg of concentrates. We conclude that under semi-intensive management dietary supplement during post-partum and early lactation period improves reproductive parameters for instance shortened calving interval. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : chameau; méthode d'élevage; conduite d'élevage; reproduction sexuée; progestérone; taux de vêlage; fertilité; complément alimentaire pour animaux; performance de reproduction; physiologie de la reproduction; soudan

Thématique : Physiologie animale : reproduction; Elevage - Considérations générales

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