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Do policy networks connect actors with different agendas related to local and global ecosystem services? Cases of Peru and Brazil

Locatelli B., Di Gregorio M., Fatorelli L., Pramova E.. 2015. In : PECS 2015 conference: social-ecological dynamics in the antropocene. Book of abstracts. Stellenbosch : PECS, p. 28. PECS 2015 Conference, 2015-11-03/2015-11-05, Stellenbosch (Afrique du Sud).

We analyzed the policy networks related to climate change and ecosystem services in Peru and Brazil to understand how actors working on local or global ecosystem services interact. Climate change requires responses at different scales: at the global scale for mitigation (i.e., limiting the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere) and at local scales for adaptation (i.e., addressing the local impacts of climate change on people and ecosystems). Although many activities can jointly contribute to the climate change strategies of adaptation and mitigation, climate policies have treated these strategies separately. In recent years, there has been a growing interest by practitioners in agriculture, forestry and landscape management in the links between the two strategies but policies rarely address adaptation and mitigation together. Some agriculture and forestry policies, such as REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), focus on one global ecosystem service for mitigation (carbon sequestration), while others emphasize local or regional ecosystem services for adaptation (e.g. flood reduction in watersheds, coastal protection by mangroves, microclimate regulation in agriculture and cities). Policies for adaptation and mitigation are generally implemented by different agencies, which can led to undesirable outcomes: because of potential trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation, a REDD+ project for global emission reductions can increase the vulnerability of local social-ecological systems; similarly a local adaptation project can increase carbon emissions. There is a lack of information on how climate change policy arenas are polarized along the adaptation-mitigation continuum and how policy actors dealing with local and global issues and ecosystem services interact. We conducted a policy network analysis (PNA) study on the synergies between adaptation and mitigation in Peru and Brazil. The PNA aimed to delineate the relationships (and their structural aspects) between the actors involved in policy processes related to climate change adaptation and/or mitigation in land use sectors (e.g. forestry, agriculture). Results provide a broad picture of actors participating in climate policy processes and identify the relationships of influence and the communication flows between organizations. They reveal how actors concerned with local or global ecosystem services interact differently in terms of communication and collaboration. The PNA is a useful tool for improving policy integration and coherence by mapping out partnerships, identifying new opportunities for collaboration, and detecting bottlenecks. Dialogue and coordination between the different actors (who have different objectives) are essential to balance potential trade-offs and enhance the co-benefits between adaptation and mitigation.

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