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Cirad

From Firestone to Michelin, a history of rubber cultivation in a cocoa-growing country: Ghana

Akwasi Owusu E., Ruf F.. 2015. In : Ruf François (ed.), Schroth Götz (ed.). Economics and ecology of diversification: the case of tropical tree crops. Dordrecht : Springer, Ed. Quae, p. 179-224.

In Ghana, many cocoa and coconut farmers started to adopt rubber in the 1990s and 2000s. Public policies played a major role in the diversification process. What were the other factors in this success? Combined with a transparent mechanism to fix procurement prices paid to the farmer, world prices have led to a dramatic increase in incomes. Subsequently, since 2012, despite the collapse of the world price of rubber, this mechanism has also proven to be a strong defence against the rapid erosion of the national currency's value. This is not so for cocoa, where farmers deal with a fixed price in Cedis. This helps to explain the strong confidence placed in rubber cultivation in Ghana at the expense of cocoa. Diversification is also viewed as a structural response to decades of monoculture. Regardless of whether it was cocoa or coconut, each region that adopted rubber witnessed the signs of fatigue and wear in these quasi-monoculture systems. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : cocos nucifera; elaeis guineensis; theobroma cacao; rendement des cultures; jeune travailleur; rôle des femmes; revenu de l'exploitation; prix; agriculteur; exploitation agricole familiale; projet de développement; développement agricole; analyse économique; caoutchouc; choix des espèces; diversification; histoire; hevea brasiliensis

Thématique : Production forestière; Histoire; Economie familiale et artisanale; Economie de la production; Commerce, commercialisation et distribution

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