Publications des agents du Cirad


Parent plant vs sucker how can competition for photoassimilate allocation and light acquisition be managed in new banana hybrids?

Dorel M., Damour G., Leclerc N., Lakhia S., Ricci S., Vingadassalon F., Salmon F.. 2016. Field Crops Research, 198 : p. 70-79.

DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2016.08.028

Dessert banana production worldwide is based on just a few highly productive, easy to grow and international market compatible cultivars from the Cavendish sub-group (AAA genome). However, these cultivars are hampered by pests and diseases, which has led to extensive pesticide use. New pest and disease resistant varieties that are productive enough to meet international market demand are now needed to reduce pesticide use and thus the detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid bananas bred by the CIRAD banana breeding program are resistant to many diseases, particularly Sigatoka diseases, but exhibit morphological traits and yield components which differ markedly from those of Cavendish bananas. After an analysis of traits related to plant morphology and yield in 530 banana hybrids, the effects of modifying the level of competition between bunches and suckers through sucker pruning management practices were compared on the new hybrid CIRAD 925 and on a reference variety from the Cavendish sub-group 'Grande Naine'. Hybrids from the CIRAD banana breeding program tend to have thin stems, small bunches and a short crop cycle. Total sucker pruning until mother plant harvest significantly increased the fruit diameter, first cycle bunch weight, second cycle duration and decreased the plant size. However, the effect on bunch weight was greater for Grande Naine, while the effects on second cycle duration and pseudostem girth were greater for CIRAD 925. The level of apical dominance of the central meristem on suckers seemed to explain the varietal differences in the effects of sucker pruning management. Our results showed that traits related to plant morphology and yield components could be modified by sucker pruning management and that a tailored management of mother-plant/sucker competition could be a way to improve the suitability of new hybrids for the banana industry. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : musa

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