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A first higher-level time-calibrated phylogeny of antlions (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

Michel B., Clamens A.L., Béthoux O., Kergoat G.J., Condamine F.L.. 2017. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107 : p. 103-116.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.10.014

In this study, we reconstruct the first time-calibrated phylogeny of the iconic antlion family, the Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontiformia). We use maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to analyse a molecular dataset based on seven mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers. The dataset encompasses 106 species of Neuroptera, including 94 antlion species. The resulting phylogenetic framework provides support for a myrmeleontid classification distinguishing four subfamilies: Acanthaclisinae, Myrmeleontinae, Palparinae, and Stilbopteryginae. Within Myrmeleontinae, Myrmecaelurini and Nemoleontini are recovered as monophyletic clades; Gepini also appears as a valid tribe, distinct from Myrmecaelurini whereas Myrmecaelurini and Nesoleontini on one hand and Brachynemurini and Dendroleontini on the other hand, appear closely related. Some preliminary information related to generic and specific levels are also implied from our results, such as the paraphyly of several genera. Dating analyses based on thoroughly evaluated fossil calibrations indicate that the antlion family likely originated in the Cretaceous, between 135 and 138 million years ago (depending on the set of fossil calibrations), and that all higher-level lineages appeared during the Early Cretaceous. This first phylogenetic hypothesis will provide a valuable basis to further expand the taxonomic coverage and molecular sampling, and to lay the foundations of future systematic revisions.

Mots-clés : neuroptera; taxonomie; phylogénie; classification; biologie moléculaire; Évolution; fossile; paléontologie; adn; marqueur génétique; anatomie animale; aile; modèle mathématique; séquencage; myrmeleontidae; stilbopteryginae; acanthaclisinae; palparinae

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