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Association mapping of seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L.

Motilal L.A., Zhang D., Mischke S., Meinhardt L.W., Boccara M., Fouet O., Lanaud C., Umaharan P.. 2016. Planta, 244 (6) : p. 1265-1276.

DOI: 10.1007/s00425-016-2582-7

Main conclusion Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping studies were conducted to identify markers to tag the phenotypic traits. Decay of LD occurred over an average 9.3 cM for chromosomes 1¿9 and 2.5 cM for chromosome 10. Marker/trait associations were generally identified based on general linear models (GLMs) that incorporated principal components from molecular information on relatedness factor. Seven markers (mTcCIR 8, 66, 126, 212; TcSNP368, 697, 1370) on chromosomes 1 and 9 were identified for number of filled seeds (NSEED). A single marker was found for black pod resistance (mTcCIR280) on chromosome 3, whereas six markers on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were detected for WBD (mTcCIR91, 183; TcSNP375, 720, 1230 and 1374). It is expected that this association mapping study in cacao would contribute to the knowledge of the genetic determinism of cocoa traits and that the markers identified herein would prove useful in marker assisted breeding of cacao.

Mots-clés : theobroma cacao; résistance aux maladies; résistance génétique; carte génétique; marqueur génétique; microsatellite; polymorphisme génétique; Équilibre génétique; graine; phytophthora palmivora; moniliophthora; amélioration des plantes; phénotype; génotype; locus des caractères quantitatifs; génétique des populations; trinité-et-tobago; france; moniliophthora perniciosa; ssr

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