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Multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis reveals multiple introductions in Spain of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruits and almond

López-Soriano P., Boyer K., Morente M.C., Peñalver J., Palacio-Bielsa A., Vernière C., López M.M., Pruvost O.. 2016. PloS One, 11 (9) : 18 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163729

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is the causal agent of the bacterial spot disease of stone fruits, almond and some ornamental Prunus species. In Spain it was first detected in 2002 and since then, several outbreaks have occurred in different regions affecting mainly Japanese plum, peach and almond, both in commercial orchards and nurseries. As the origin of the introduction(s) was unknown, we have assessed the genetic diversity of 239 X. arboricola pv. pruni strains collected from 11 Spanish provinces from 2002 to 2013 and 25 reference strains from international collections. We have developed an optimized multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme targeting 18 microsatellites and five minisatellites. A high discriminatory power was achieved since almost 50% of the Spanish strains were distinguishable, confirming the usefulness of this genotyping technique at small spatio-temporal scales. Spanish strains grouped in 18 genetic clusters (conservatively delineated so that each cluster contained haplotype networks linked by up to quadruple-locus variations). Furthermore, pairwise comparisons among populations from different provinces showed a strong genetic differentiation. Our results suggest multiple introductions of this pathogen in Spain and redistribution through contaminated nursery propagative plant material.

Mots-clés : xanthomonas; Épidémiologie; prunus; maladie bactérienne; variation génétique; génotype; génétique des populations; contamination biologique; xanthomonas arboricola; espagne; Émergence

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