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A new face of quinoa production: challenges for the Andean region

Alandia G., Rodriguez J.P., Jacobsen S.E., Bazile D., Condori B.. 2016. In : International Conference Quinoa for Future Food and Nutrition Security in Marginal Environments December 6-8, 2016 Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Dubai : ICBA, p. 29-30. Quinoa for Future Food and Nutrition Security in Marginal Environments, 2016-12-06/2016-12-08, Dubai (Emirats arabes unis).

Quinoa, a seed crop originated in the Andean region with a remarkable nutritional value, has been recognized internationally as an ally for food security. During the last century the dynamics of interest and research have moved quinoa to different areas of the globe delineating a new distribution map in which the scale of development denotes new challenges for the traditionally producing countries. We analyze the Andean context of quinoa production from global and regional scales with more emphasis for Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. With different databases from the 1900s up to 2016, this analysis holds the most updated information for the region and illustrates the new settings producers have to face. The analysis shows quinoa has spread across the globe and adapts to produce in other regions. In 2016, quinoa is present in 101 countries for research and production. Two big (more than 5000 ha) and four medium (up to 5000 ha) scale producers are now outside the Andean region and the latter are developed countries with high agricultural technology. Even when 79% of global exports are supplied by Peru and Bolivia, yields strongly fluctuate along decades between 0.4 ¿ 1.1 t ha-1. In only two years the production area in both countries doubled and increased ten times in Ecuador causing uncertainty for sustainability. In 30 years, quinoa from Andean countries gained a space in the global markets and improved farmers' livelihoods. Nevertheless, at the end of 2015 producer prices collapsed for a big producer such as Bolivia. The process evolved and farmers confront a different scenario with new competitors and concerns. Being conscious of the new reality is essential to face challenges with responsibility. Analyzing at different scales is necessary, as encouraging local biodiversity and cooperating towards inclusive processes that benefit all. (Texte intégral)

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